The wolf is a large canine found in North American and Eurasia, and more than 30 subspecies are found. They are non-domestic/wild subspecies and are the most prominent extant member of Canidae females averaging 37 kgs and males 40 kgs and measures 105–160 cm in length and 80–85 cm at shoulder height. It has fewer pointed ears, a muzzle and a shorter torso, and a longer tail. The wolf’s banded fur is usually mottled white, grey, black, brown, but subspecies in the arctic region may be nearly all white.
Wolf is more social and its highly advanced expressive behavior. Nuclear family, it travels which consists of mated pair accompanied by their offspring. Wolves fight over territory and are the leading cause of wolf mortality, and are mainly carnivores. Single wolf or mated pairs hunt better than large packs.
Wolves mating –
Wolves are animals that mate for life, and typically, male and female wolves stay together for life. But they have to rebound quickly if their mate passes away. Wolves packs usually have one litter of pups per year, and mating occurs mainly between January and March. At 2 to 3 years of age, they began mating and are believed to mate for life. At the onset of sexual maturity, offsprings may leave their birth pack to search for a new territory or join an existing pack. They roam about 40 to 70 miles on average and sometimes more than 100 miles depending on gender, available habitat, and presence of other packs.
In an underground den, wolf pups are born blind and deaf after a 63-day gestation period. Litter size averages 4 to 6 pups. Pups nurse every 4 to 6 hours during the 1st three weeks and need help regulating their body temperatures. The mothers stay with the pups in the den and eat food brought by other pack members. At about eight weeks of age, wolves are weaned once they have begun eating semi-solid food. The food is controlled by a mother or other members of the pack. The pups are moved to one or more rendezvous sites once they start eating more solid food, and over there they learn proper pack behavior.
At 6 to 8 months of age, the pups go hunting with other pack members. Pups born in the wild fewer than half survive till adulthood. Survival rates are affected by disease, malnutrition, and predation. Wolves leave up to 15 years of age on average in normal conditions.